According to the national census 2011, the total population of the district is 420,477 comprising 206,664 male and 213,812 female. Subsistence agriculture farming, mainly traditional agriculture is the main source of occupation and livelihood of the majority of the population. The shape of the district is like a military boot and represents different agro climatic zone comprising of valley, flat land to middle hills and high hills. Makawanpur district is well known for religious, historical, tourism, rafting (Indrasarobar), trekking and expedition. The district is served by surface transport facilities linking the district with the national strategic road network through Mahendra Highway, Tribhuwan Rajpath, Sisneri-Kulekhani-Bhainse and Pharping Kulekhani roads. The network of feeder roads, district roads and village roads are increasing significantly. Most effort is given in road sector by all local bodies in the district in last 20 years.
Makawanpur district is well known for religious, historical and tourism. Many places are religious, historical importance. Bhutandevi Temple and Churiyamai Temple are the most famous temples of the district. Geopolitically, the district is administratively divided into 4 Electoral constituencies 13 Illakas which consist of 35 VDCs and one Sub metropolitan city (Hetauda) and one municipality (Thaha).
Makawanpur is a hill district of Nepal. It is located on the south of Kathmandu district. Although the district is located at the border of Kathmandu valley, many parts/VDCs of the district are still inaccessible by road and other development intervention. The district is surrounded by Kathmandu and Dhading districts at north, Chitwan district at west, Lalitpur, Kavre and Sindhuli districts at east and Bara, Parsa and Rautahat districts in the south. The district encompasses 2418 sq. Km. hill and plain (CBS). There are 5 Rivers and 41 Streams/Kholas. Some major rivers are; Rapti Khola, Bagmati River, Manahari khola, Lothar khola and Bakaiya Khola.
Different ethnic castes (group) are found in Makawanpur. Majorities are Tamang (47.65%) and followed by Brahman/Chhetri (25.28%), Newar (6.81%), Magar (4.54%), Chepang (3.94%), and others Kami, Rai, Thakuri and Gurung are 2.69%, 2.08%, 0.66% and 0.88% respectively. Actually all the caste is used communicating common Nepali language. Major festivals celebrated are Dashain, Tihar, Phagupurnima, Sivaratri, Losar and Christmas etc. There are altogether 593 all types of educational institutions with 386 primary and pre pre-primary schools, 92 are lower secondary schools, 83 are secondary schools and 23 are higher secondary schools and 9 Campus. Literacy rate of the district is 63.4% whereas female literacy rate is 53.9% and male literacy rate is 72.6%.
Major occupation in the district is agriculture. Economically active population is 82.7% in total who depend mostly on agriculture. But this has shifted with high youth force migration due to social conflict and unemployment problem. About 52.83% of people are being involved in agriculture as subsistence livelihood and 30.66% in service and 16.51% in others. It has 2,39,076 (Ha) total lands out of which 1,67,453 (Ha) is forest land, 40,842 (Ha) cultivated land, 18,815 hectares is non cultivated land, 3,136 hectares is pasture land and 8,830 hectares is other land. Major agriculture production of this district is cereal crops (Paddy, Maize and millet). Paddy production, fruit and vegetable are the main agricultural production in this district for the domestic use and exporting to other districts, particularly in Kathmandu. 41338 Ha of total land is cultivated in this district. Highest cultivated land is in Manahari, Basamadi, Hatiya, Harnamadi, Namtar, Chhatiwan, Handikhoal, Palung, Chitlang, Markhu and Makawanpurgadhi.